What is IMRaD? IMRaD, which stands for Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion, is a standard layout for academic journal articles, which also typically require a title, an abstract, tables and figures, references to literature cited and acknowledgements. The translation or editing of each of these elements of a research article requires suitable background knowledge that ensures that the manuscript complies with widely recognized publication standards and is approved in the peer-review process with the minimum of amendments. Translation and/or editing of articles for publications requires familiarity with style guides and the differences between style guides, publication practices, responsible authorship and plagiarism, journal-specific authors' instructions, different citation and referencing systems, etc.

 My IMRaD experience. In building a translation business, I gradually came to specialize in academic translation. A logical extension was editing non-native English and a further logical extension was author's editing, a far more proactive form of editing, as it requires working directly with authors to make pre-submission manuscripts fit for publication.

 

What to expect from a professional translator or editor. Before reading further, it may be useful to read this text on how to choose an editor or translator.